Terms and definitions


 SOLID STATE OF THE ISOTOPE - is a state of aggregation of “hedgehogs”-isotopes formed after compounding one neutrons’ pentad to each of the ends of one short rotating axis of the isotopes-“liquid” of the same element.

  In the horizontal plane, there are two long axes with different poles, which have opposite twisting around the vertical axis and in consequence of that “hedgehog”-isotope rotation ceases. The isotope-“solid state” is ready for its crystallization. It, vibrating and rotating weakly under external action, smooth moves in the gravitational flow.


  A CRYSTALLINE SOLID - is a chemical compound of the isotopes – “solid state” with the isotopes – “liquid” in one solid mass, which we call as a body.

  All bodies have a crystalline structure. And this is regarded to metal, wood, clothe, clay, and etc.

  Pure metals consist of just the isotopes-“solid state”, the isotopes-“liquid” and gases. So, the pure metals have a single state of aggregation, and alloys up to three what leads to considerable changing their properties.

  Amorphous bodies have unstable geometrical configuration and refer to alloys but for the presence of amount of the isotopes- “liquid” in their mass. For instance, it is accustomed for us glass.

  A crystal lattice - is a mass of the “hedgehogs” - isotopes with the chemically bounded needles forming faces of the cube or right-angled prism. There are no any other forms with completely bounded needles in nature! Compounds, in the shape of triangles, hexahedrons, and etc., refer already to the more complicated filamentary formations, which are certain to consist of the cubes, and right-angled prisms, or the compounds have free, unbounded with the lattice needles.

  Let’s consider the process of water becoming ice, i.e. its crystallization. We have spoken already – temperature is a thermal carriers density. The thermal carriers are partially involved in the gravitational flow motion and become its component. The main thermal carrier for the 1-st parallel world is a neutron. In cooling, the thermal carriers density reduces in water, what leads to reducing Oxygen needles rotation velocity in its chains. Inertial possibilities of the needles masses to overcome magnetic repulsion reduce and the chains begin to get moving parallel to each other, taking position in which the slowly rotating needles of one chain is located opposite chemical compounds of another chain (Fig.6) and so with all ambient chains.

  Distances l1 between longitudinal chains (Í2Î)n and Oxygen needles in the position of the future coupling (Fig. 6) at t=+4îÑ are the least at which the needles are rotating without couplings. Partial coupling of the Oxygen needles with Hydrogen begins at the further reduction of the water temperature (what the most actively occurs on the surface). Mass coupling begins after 0îÑ, and this is water crystallization, i.e. mass ice forming.

Now let’s look into a matter of all water anomalies.

1. In the ice state, we have l1 minimal, and it is nearly equal in length to the Oxygen needle, and that means we have a maximal volume density, which brings automatically to reduction in weight in the gravitational flow (the problem on reduction in weight in the less sized crystalline lattices have been considered in the books “Thoughts Aloud”, “People…” and it will be further considered in item 1.23 “Gravitation”). By that reason ice floats in water.

2. Why the ice volume is more than water one, from which it was obtained? Let’s begin to melt the ice (Fig. 7), i.e. let’s supply the thermal carriers, mainly neutrons, in the ice lattices.

  The water chains begin uncoupling, axial and lateral vibrations will occur under the both gravitational flow and thermal carriers’ actions. Twisting of the needles will increase and accordingly, their small magnets will begin growing. “Skipping ropes” will  be rotating stronger what will bring to increasing in their oscillations’ amplitude. While the water becoming the ice, the “skipping ropes” oscillations’ amplitude tends to zero, and the water chains’ axis – to elongation. The cones’ needles’ axes acquire the maximal lengths and the cones disappear after coupling with Hydrogen. The elongation in the both variants brings to mass ice volume increasing at crystallization.

3. Why is the abnormality distinctly expressed and namely in the water? The cause is a single Hydrogen coupling unit with the needles’ ends’ size to secure almost complete bounding all needles in the ice lattice.

  In another liquids in crystallization, there is a lot of the free needles towards which pressure forces either sag, or destroy the chains’ axes, what oftener occurs and the free lattice volumes are being filled with the destroyed chains’ or blocks’ remains. It mainly refers to liquids on the basis of water. Another liquids don’t have the anomaly like this by the simple cause – the presence of isotopes of different melting and solidification temperatures in their molecules, i.e. when some “hedgehogs” begin the process forming lattice, and others, at the same moment and afterwards, continue remaining as liquids to be easy destroyed and fill its free volumes.

  To be brief, there are compensating objects of volume increasing at crystallization in all those cases.