CHAPTER II
Essentials of Neutron Astrophysics

EFFICIENCY

  ďWhatever mechanism will be taken by us, the done with its help useful work makes up always only a part of the full work. Consequently, having written Au for the useful work, and A for the full one, we can write down

  Ratio of useful work to the full one is called efficiency of the mechanism:

  Example. A weight of 100 kg mass is hung up on a short lever arm. The 250 N force was applied to the long lever arm for hoisting. The weight was hoisted on height h1=0.08m, at that a point of applying the moving force came down on height h2 = 0.4 m. Find η (efficiency) of the lever.

  The adduced extraction from the textbook of physics is example of the old thinking. Letís try to solve a problem from the new point of view. Mass is ďabsolute emptinessĒ, it is unable to be inserted into the statement of the problem with volumetric dimensions. The weight is – ≈ 1000 N Ė it is directed gravitational flow through the given body volume, which arches skipping ropes of the lattice to the Earth, which repel themselves from it towards its motion.

  Letís note, that h2 = 0.4 m > h1 = 0.08 m, and time of motion of the lever ends t is equal. From this, velocity of motion of the lever ends is different, and force of energy mass also will be different.

We have already known, that forces F and – have two components each while moving the lever. From this

In order to obtain the ultimate result, we have to determine –motion and Fmotion.

Letí labour the point of the motion force on various circumstances:

1. The bar in the shape of a cube is into temporary absolute emptiness at rest (the rest mass, and the acquired one do not break down yet). In that case, there are no any resistant forces and any other outer forces there generally. We mentally want to make the cube move. What do we need for that? It is necessary to input a stream of the directed gravitational flow-force, for instance, in horizontal in our imagination.

  The flow stream passed through the cube lattice, arched its skipping ropes towards its direction, and they repel from it moving the cube lattice towards the same direction, while rotating, when they head the stream flow. In some period of time, velocities of the stream and the cube will equal, and cambers will disappear in the skipping ropes, and the cube will start retarding. Again the skipping ropes will be arched and the cube will start reaching to the stream velocity. As we see, the cube will move with the stream velocity with small oscillatory motions and, accordingly, with some variations in its own velocity.

  Letís fix the main fact: there is not any resistant force (equilibrium force) in the given example. There is only motion force, i.e. the stream there. Any bodiesí motions will not be there without it. The cube rest mass and acquired one are the ďabsolute emptinessĒ with physical volume. Into that stream, a cube, a tank, a ship, and a piece of fluff will move with the similar velocity to the flow one, like a pellet and a piece of fluff into the glass vacuum pomp in school experiments. If the stream is directed vertically downwards, it will be usual free fall of bodies in the vacuum.

2. We have a rocket on the take-off position, which has balanced forces and it has to start moving. It is clear, that as in item 1, the rocket engine should form its additional flow stream towards the rocket motion with velocity as minimum of the planned uniform motion, for example in our case. The situation is maximal close to the cube into the absolute emptiness. The streams of the gravitation (forces) need for motion in the both cases, and body dimensions are of no import: it is enough one cell of the lattice, but with arched rotating skipping ropes for repelling from the flow.

  The real starting rocket has its real engine with its specific thrust, which is determined by mass of ejected gases and by their velocity. The gases velocity is what we can change in reality, but we even do not surmise, that we measure the gravitational stream velocity, which pulls the gases, as in the example with the cube.

  In the combustor chamber of the rocket engine, the gravitational streams mainly act in two directions along the fore-and-aft axis of the rocket with the equal velocities.

  So, the gas stream velocity is the gravitational streams velocity in all their directions. The gravitational stream density is determined by temperature in a zone of the measurement in the given case and always. It is necessary to make a scale connected with a temperature one (the thermal carriers density) for the gravitational flows density. It is necessary to recognize the absolute emptiness with zero K as a density equals to zero.

  How are the new concepts used in the real life with being available various measuring instruments for various parameters measurement?

  Letís consider a simplified example with a rocket.

  Letís the rocket moves uniformly and horizontally over the Earthís surface in the atmosphere. Letís assume the velocity of 3,600 km/h for convenience to be counted in the head. The velocity per a second will be v = 1 km/s.

  The maximum possible velocity of the gravitational stream from the rocket engine is 4 km/s in our case and generally. The rocket engine thrust should be calculated by the following method:

1. It is necessary to subtract the motion velocity 1 km/s from the stream velocity 4 km/s for the rocket motion with the speed of v = 1 km/c, i.e. for forming the gravitational stream to secure that.

2. Having calculated the resistant force, which will be equalized by the thrust force of the equilibrium, it is necessary to determine ejected gases mass and nozzle exit section dimensions proceeding from the speed of 3 km/s, but not from of 4 km/s.

3. The full rocket engine thrust force will be combined with two forces, as usual:

  As we see, a forth (25%) of the engine thrust overcomes nothing, and just forms the gravitational stream with the given motion speed, in which the rocket is as though in its free fall. (A cube in the gravitational stream into the absolute emptiness).

  The example is seen to pass easily to the new gravitational concepts by the available instruments.

  In our uncompleted example with determining efficiency of the lever, motion forces can be assumed equal to zero, because of their smallness, and efficient also will be equal to 80%. In view of the motion force, efficiencies will be rather different, as in the example with the rocket.

  The comparison of the velocities motions of the rocket and the lever showed that it is necessary always them to take into account. The motion thrust force is a useful component of work.

  At a car motion, the motion thrust force forms an artificial gravitational stream of the car speed, as well, as in other cases.

  In the considered cases, our objects moved either along, or perpendicular to the Earthís gravitational flow. Generally, while moving to any direction, it is necessary to take into account position of artificial gravitational streams to the gravitational flow of the Earth, the Sun, and galaxies. The situation may seem farfetched at first sight. Letís return to force of inertia in item . The item is stated, that the force of inertia, opposite to the gravitational one, is formed by the energy mass in account of constriction of concave skipping ropes needles, and itís all right there Ė it is the first component of the force, and the gravitational flow towards motion of the motion thrust force with the former body velocity is its the second component.

  Sum of those gravitational flows-forces is a full inertial force.

  If we return to the cube moving in conjunction with the gravitational stream into the absolute emptiness, and mentally stop it, the gravitational stream will become the inertial force, which will try to move it ahead towards its motion.

  The inertial force is constituted by the single second component Ė the motion force in that imagine experiment because of the absence of the energy mass, as the cube moved with the similar velocity with the stream. After passing the stream through, the cube concave skipping ropes would have pulled the cube backward because of constriction of the needles, if there had been a flow there.

  While moving a bus with passengers in item , there is a gravitational flow, besides the artificial stream, and because of that while hard breaking, people and bodies are thrown firstly forward, and then backward, as several jumps occur before anti-energy mass, the first component of the inertial force collapses completely.