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# CHAPTER II Essentials of Neutron Astrophysics

## WORK OF FORCE DIRECTED AT AN ANGLE WITH THE MOVEMENT

“If the force direction doesn’t coincide with the movement direction under conditions, in which the body movement takes place, only part of the applied force, namely that component coinciding with the movement direction, does the work of the movement …” (from the textbook “Physics for the secondary technical schools” D. I. Sakharov, M.I. Bludov, “Nauka”, Moscow, 1969).
Let’s consider an example in Fig. 39.

A body moves upwards on the inclined plane under action of the force of F. As we see, there are more applied to the body forces, than it is generally assumed by modern physics. It becomes clear at once, that obtained before results are either rather rough, or simply assumed with assumptions under agreed basis. Let’s collect all the forces. The tractive resistance consists of the combination of forces:

The lifting force is

Combination of retaining the body against the surface forces is

The thrust force is

Let’s consider the simplest case, when the velocity v is constant. It is generally assumed, that all forces are balanced at the uniform motion, and there, it is very simply to formulate an equation of the forces. Let’s firstly try to go on that beaten way. Let’s make extractions from the same textbook of physics: “At the uniform motion of the bar (on the horizontal surface under action of a plummet weight pulling the bar with the help of a thread through the small block (the instrument is a tribometer. Author)) Fthrust = Ffrictional … Experiments with the tribometer show, that frictional force depends on the surface sizes of the rubbing bodies. We can turn the bar on any of its face – the fractional force will not change in. A friction coefficient depends on material of the rubbing surfaces, on their working, on the presence of lubrication between the surfaces. Mean values of a coefficient of friction of rest are given in the following table:

As it has been already stated, the force of sliding friction (equals to the thrust force at the uniform motion) is less than maximal force of friction at rest. Therefore and a coefficient of sliding friction is rather less than a coefficient of friction of rest. Besides of that, the frictional force and the coefficient of sliding friction depend on the sliding speed (it is seen from the extraction, as uncompleted notions about nature of phenomena make introduce new coefficients in every particular case, which all the same are not tenable at variable motion, because a series of force are not taken into account, which are unknown at present. Author). … At the uniform motion, the frictional force is the product of force of normal pressure into a coefficient of sliding friction.

It is quite well seen from the above stated, that states of things in physics seems to be built on unquestionable facts of experiments, and not allowing to sift a kind of the simplest and well observable phenomenon to the bottom. The ignorance forces scientists to cut corners and to make a show that they understand something. But it is mere camouflage and deception basing on the false scientific grounds. We have already understood, that they cannot explain physics of that phenomenon (friction), because they don’t know what mass, force, gravitation, and etc. are …

Let’s return to the statement from the extract, that Fthrust = Ffrictional at the uniform motion, i.e. the system is in equilibrium. Is it really so?

We have known, that any force is a directed energy flow. If two flows balance each other, nothing will move! It was seen on the starting rocket, which was unable to take off the ground at the equipoise.

As we see, we obtain two mutually exclusive concept of nature of phenomena and that and other problems will not be solved quietly and peacefully. Unfortunately, laws and works of Newton, Einstein, and also of other scientists, as everything primitive and much earlier, did not bare the test of time, and that is a normal evolutional phenomenon.

In order that the body moved with constant speed, it is necessary, after reaching the equilibrium of forces, to form in the body such an additional directed energy flow, i.e. force, which will move through the body with the given constant speed towards the motion direction.

In our case, the thrust force is directed at an angle with the motion direction. From there, velocity of the directed energy flow should be more than the body motion velocity.

So the thrust force is combined with two forces: the first one balancing all resistant forces, and the second one – of motion:

At present we have considered the general formulation of the problem, which allowed us to sift the two contrary concepts on nature of phenomena, which were considered as simple and clear, that disputes have never occurred on them for ages.

The first Newton’s law (the 17-th century) – the law of inertia reads as follows: at the absence of actions other bodies, any physical body remains at rest or at uniform rectilinear motion.

That Newton’s law does not act even in the absolute emptiness, because a body in the form of mass is also the “absolute emptiness” with linear dimensions, and does not have inertial properties. The gravitational flow through the body, i.e. energy mass has inertial property. In order that the body moved with constant speed, it is necessary to apply additional permanent acting thrust force of motion. Nothing of its own accord will move into the absolute emptiness because of the absence of outer forces. A body moves only in case, when the lattice is arched by the gravitational flow, and its arched rotating skipping ropes repel itself from it. If repulsions of the skipping ropes and deformation of the lattices do not occur, the motion does not occur.

It was shown in the example about the rocket, that the thrust force should be more than the resistant forces, and the question was not considered in details lest the reader be mixed up completely. Now, we have understood, that the “rather more force” is the thrust force of motion.

Let’s define the force of normal pressure of the moving body on the inclined plane

Let’s remain for easiness and by force of habit the coefficient of sliding friction, though it partially takes into account F1, - fsliding friction. Let’s remember, that the frictional force consists of two forces: lifting, and resistant ones. In our case, the resistant force is considered as the frictional force:

Farther, when we learn to operate quite freely with gravitational flows, the science will abandon the coefficient of friction as not wanted. The thrust force has two component forces – equilibrium, and motion ones:

Let’s consider attentively how the body moves under action of the gravitational forces, what should convince everybody of correctness of the produced conclusions. Let’s have a look once more at the rocket lattice element (Fig. 38). We can see there, how curved horizontal skipping rope lowering while rotating, rests on the denser gravitational flow from the side of the combustion chamber and presses on the vertical skipping ropes through its supports (Hydrogen “cubes”) moving them ahead – upper. In equilibrium, the Earth’s gravitational flow arches horizontal skipping ropes of the upper half of the rocket lattice to the side of the combustion chamber, and the combustion chamber gravitational flow arches the horizontal skipping ropes of the lower half of the rocket lattice to the side of its nose. In order that the rocket began moving, it is necessary to compact the combustion chamber gravitational flow, by burning more fuel. Compacting the flow will lead to more arching the horizontal skipping ropes of the rocket tail-end and to more moving ahead – upper its vertical skipping ropes. The conditional plane of the gravitational flows running out on the sides of the rocket will move upper towards its nose. What has the displacement of the conditional plane of the flows running out led to? If in the equilibrium state, we had two counteracting each other parts of the rocket airframe, while moving the rocket airframe divided into three parts, the two parts of them balance each other, and the third is quasi free and makes rocket movement under action of the energy flow through its lattice.

Let’s reckon up: the main conclusion consists in that, the body movement is possible only at presence of the gravitational flow through its lattice, from which the body concaved skipping ropes repel themselves. The gravitational flow is a support, from which the body lattice repels itself towards the flow. The body lattice does not have any support for repelling in the temporary absolute emptiness, and by that reason, bodies are unable to move in it.

What is the practical value of that, as it would seem, theoretical question? If the rocket nose is built from the material with its lattice near to the Lithium lattice size, two problems will be solved: the first one – practically resistance to the Earth’s gravitational flow will collapse – it will unable to pass through the rocket, and almost the whole engine thrust will be spent on the useful load; the second one – cosmonauts won’t feel G-effect, because practically it will not there. New world outlook will allow designing spacecraft and launching vehicles in a new fashion.

Let’s return to the uniformly moving bar on the inclined plane and the pulling force applied at an angle with the motion direction. Work will equal in the old treatment (refinement of the work notion will be done in item )

As in case with the rocket, F″thrust consists of two forces.

Work on the energy conservation, i.e. forces is produced mainly with the help of the energy mass as well. In that particular case, only small part of the directed gravitational flows achieves necessary density for forming structured energy carriers, and the rest part of the energy flows is conserved in increasing excitation of a lattice of the body and atmosphere gases, i.e. in its heating.