CHAPTER I
Terms and definitions

CHEMICAL BONDS

COVALENT BOND
  “A chemical bond produced by electron pairs is called atomic or covalent. Such a bond is formed by overlapping opposite spins’ single-electron atomic clouds. Compounds with the covalent bond are called homo-polar or atomic. Two varieties of the covalent
bond – polar and non-polar are distinguished.

  In case of the non-polar covalent bond, the formed by the common electron pair electron cloud, or the bond electron cloud is distributed in the space symmetrically about nuclei of both atoms. As examples are two-atoms molecules, consisting of atoms of one element: H2, Cl2, O2, N2, F2, and etc. They have an electron pair, which belongs to the both atoms simultaneously. Those substances possess low melting and boiling points, they do not dissociate into ions in water.

  In case of the polar covalent bond, the bond electron cloud is displaced towards the more electronegative atom, i.e. to the atom of the larger relative electro negativity. As examples may be served molecules of volatile inorganic compounds: HCl, H2O, H2S, NH2, and etc.”

  Non-polar covalent bond by neutron physics (NP) is a coupling of two needles with their ends in vertical into the gravitational flow with overcoming magnetic repulsive forces, for instance, two South poles with opposite twisting (spins) in two identical Helium “hedgehogs”.

  In the given case, magnetic repulsive forces of the covalent bond are maximal in all gases, and in heating – thermal carriers bombardment, they can be broken down easier. Those substances possess low melting and boiling points because of the maximal magnetic repulsive forces. Two coupled pentads cease rotating one around another, because there is no unit at the junction.

  Polar covalent bond by NP is a coupling of two needles of various “hedgehogs” elements with their ends in vertical with overcoming magnetic repulsive forces (of two South poles) with opposite twisting (spins). The longer “hedgehog” needles, the stronger small magnets, because a great many neutrinos are captured in the process of their forming. More powerful magnetic lines of force – the larger element ropes displace lines – the smaller element ropes from the coupling place of needles ends towards its unit. The larger element needle magnet captures the smaller element needles pentads, twists them into its own direction, and so displaces the coupling place. It is necessary far less thermal energy for uncoupling a new compounding place. The initial end compounding did not have a single neutron (neutron unit), and after uncoupling at the new compounding place, we shall obtain α – set of two pentads without accelerating mechanism on the needle end, which after uncoupling, will scatter into separated free neutrons and will transform into usual thermal carriers (the reaction will proceed with heat release).

“… Directivity of the covalent bond is one of the most important its properties. It secures a three-dimensional structure of molecules, i.e. their form. The covalent bond is known to occur in the direction of maximal overlapping electron clouds (orbitals) of interacting atoms…”

  Coupling in vertical – the bond direction is determined by the Earth’s gravitational flow direction.

  The coupling secures maximal “overlapping electron clouds” only in one case, when two Hydrogen “cubes” couple, in which an edge is shorter, than its diagonal, circumscribing a conventional spherical surface of the “electron cloud”.

IONIC BOND
“…A chemical bond between ions, producing by electrostatic attraction, is called an electrovalent, or ionic bond.

  Ionic compounds are comparatively not many. They have high melting and boiling points, transmit electricity in the molten state, easily dissociate into ions in water. Ionic compounds consist of the separated molecules only in the vapours state. In that case, for example, one Na+ ion is combined with one Cl- ion. Ionic compounds consist of determinately disposed positive and negative ions in the solid (crystalline) state. So, for example, in sodium chloride, as it defined by X-ray examination (structural analysis), every Na+ ion is surrounded by six Cl- ions, and every Cl- ion is surrounded by six sodium ions. Ions on the whole are essential a giant molecule, consisting of such ions…”

  Let’s consider a principle of ionic bond by NP. The ionic bond is impossible in gas state, because needles have like poles in vertical and horizontal axes, but it is necessary to couple the needles with ends of opposite poles. For occurring opposite magnetic poles of “hedgehogs” in the horizontal and vertical planes, it is necessary to transform even one of them into isotope (ion).

  How does it occur? A “hedgehog” in the gas state with the elongated South poles vertical axis, combines new neutrons’ pentad on the top needle with turned on nuclear engine and makes a top-down jerk, capturing the gravitational flow neutrons by the end of the lower needle with the help of the small magnet.

  The axis turns into the largest one, and it turns transverse to the gravitational flow into the horizontal position – this is a “hedgehog”-isotope “liquid”. Four needles with the North poles rotate around the long horizontal axis.

  A periodic alternating magnetic field has occurred in the horizontal plane, and the plane of the North poles has occurred in the vertical one. The main variant of the coupling runs in the vertical. Let’s consider as an example a NaCl coupling. Chlorine is in the gas state, i.e. it has the vertical axis with the South poles (minuses). Na is a “hedgehog”- “liquid” and it has the North poles (pluses) in the vertical axis. Chlorine will couple at the top on the Sodium “hedgehog” under the gravitational flow action, i.å. its lower South pole will couple with the Sodium top North pole.

  As usual, there will be not a neutron-unit at the place of the needles ends coupling, i.e. a future “hedgehogs” uncoupling will occur at that place. The coupled needles magnetic field will become common, and hybridization of the “hedgehogs” magnetic fields will occur through it. Under lateral neutrons collisions, the common long axis of two “hedgehogs” will be unable to stand vertically in the gravitational flow, and it will be in the horizontal position. The minus will be on the long horizontal axis from the Chlorine side, and the plus – from the Sodium one.

  The second way of the ion bond is a coupling in the horizontal plane of the long axes by their ends without the neutron-unit of the opposite charged needles of molecules, but not of gases and isotopes. At this time hybridization of the magnetic fields of two molecules will also occur there. A chain from horizontal molecules is (NaCl)õ liquid. Twisting of such chains is very weak, and free needles – Chlorine plusses tend to couple with the ends of the needles – Sodium minuses, what leads to formation of the crystal with alternant elements, in which besides of the ionic bond in longitudinal chains, and next by a chain in the lateral needles bonds, there is a covalent polar bond next to a chain in the lateral bonds. Otherwise, the ionic and covalent bonds alternate in the lateral compounds.

  Initial destructions of NaCl crystals by water chains, which freely penetrate into smaller-sized lattice, occur just on covalent bonds, and then freed needles help water to split ionic bonds of the molecules, because of the hybrid magnetic bonds.

 METALLIC BOND
“…Such a kind of the chemical bond – attraction between ions and common electrons, is called metallic bond. It is electrical nature of the bond…”

  Metallic bond differs from the above considered ones in the coupling of two and more “hedgehogs”, which occurs only at the states:

1. A “hedgehog”-“liquid” + a “hedgehog”-“liquid” (isotopes).
2. A “hedgehog”-“liquid” + a “hedgehog”-“solid” (isotopes).
3. A “hedgehog”-“solid” + a “hedgehog”-“solid” (isotopes).

  And it is carried out by superimposition of the needles, but not by their ends.

  Let’s begin, as usual, with “hedgehog”-“gas” of the given element, which is unable to have metallic bond by the reasons to be considered further.

  A “hedgehog”-“gas” has a vertical axis with the South poles – minuses, and with magnetic lines of force – ropes in the shape of a cotton boll, which set the needles coupling with their ends only. For occurring metallic bond, it is necessary to have conditions, when the needles slide one on another and are able to combine by superimposing with neutron interaction.

  The first condition is the impossibility of the similar “hedgehog” occurrence in three states in the same mixture under the same conditions.

  Basic states are “hedgehog”-“liquid” and “hedgehog”-“solid”, in which there are two or four long needles in the horizontal plane, accordingly, with compulsory alternating disposing of the opposite poles. When a “hedgehog” in any of those states oscillates around the vertical axis with the North poles in the horizontal plane, it will always have an alternating magnetic field. The alternating magnetic fields of the “hedgehog” of one and the same element in the states “liquid” and “solid” will be different. In the state “liquid”, the strongest magnetic field is in the South poles, as in the longest needles, in which the rope lines of force of the four North poles come to.

  In the “solid” state, the longest axis will be one with the North poles in the horizontal plane, because it has a stronger magnetic field, than the vertical axis with the North poles, but all the same, it will be also twice weaker, than the field of the South poles. How will the “hedgehogs” with alternating magnetic fields behave in the horizontal plane, in distinction from the “hedgehogs” with static magnetic fields? And they are “hedgehogs” of one and the same element. Naturally, they will oscillate about their vertical axes, approaching because of attraction of the opposite poles, and repelling at the like poles meeting.

  If there are many “hedgehogs” in one and the same grope, they cannot synchronize their oscillations because of the opposite poles. The coupling will occur in vertical, just by the needles with the North poles, by their superposition with overcoming magnetic repulsion because of masses inertia in oscillations, but not by their ends.

  As usual, the long axis of two coupled “hedgehogs” in vertical will turn in the horizontal position. In the metallic bond, the end needles of the long axis will have identical North poles, in distinction from the ionic bond, in which the same needles had unlike poles. The turn of the two “hedgehogs”-molecule will lead to occurring alternating magnetic fields in the vertical plane, and to oscillations in the perpendicular plane. Just the oscillations and inertial masses of the “hedgehogs” secure combining the needles by their superposition in the both planes.

  Breaking the small magnets down and the sharp decrease in twisting of the coupled sections occur at the needles superposition zones.

  If the needles are completely constricted, the magnetic fields together with their twisting will collapse, i.e. conditions for superconductivity will be established. The partial increase in superconductivity can be obtained while forging.

  Now, let’s consider, how single-pole, and opposite-pole needles will be constricted.

  The opposite-pole needles will tend to constrict themselves as much, as they could under action of neutron and magnetic forces.

  The single-pole needles will tend to constrict themselves under action of neutron forces, but on the contrary, magnetic repulsive forces will tend to move them apart.

SEDIMENTARY BONDS
  Modern science has known three bonds of elements – covalent, ionic, and metallic. Neutron chemistry introduces another three ones – sedimentary covalent, sedimentary onic, and sedimentary metallic.

  Sedimentary bonds are shell compounding horizontal planes of elements, and molecules groups of badly, or completely uncoupling ones with others, with overcoming magnetic repulsion of the lower fixed shell because of weight of the upper moveable shell. At that after overcoming magnetic repulsive (compounding) forces, the needles of the “hedgehogs” of the elements planes or of molecules come into neutron interaction by superposition, reconstructing the common magnetic field of the certain planes and forming a new common magnetic field of the whole substance.

  At the top view on the plane of the element or molecule groups, they will look as volleyball net with square, rectangular, or rhombic meshes.

  Now, let’s take the second plane – volleyball net, and impose on the first one with a turn, then on the third one, and so forth, and in a result we shall obtain horizontal bonds of the needles, bound in many directions, much stronger, than initial ones.

  Vertical “hedgehogs” needles can be not in mesh with neighbours at all. By those reasons, natural crystals are easy cleaved on those shells-planes.

  At superposing the upper plane on the lower one, the horizontal needles can be crossed as swords at any angles, coming into neutron interaction.